Civil engineering is a branch of engineering that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally created environment, such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewage systems, pipelines, building structural components, and railways.
Traditionally, civil engineering has been divided into several sub-disciplines. It is defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering, and it is regarded the second-oldest engineering discipline after military engineering. Civil engineering can be found in the public sector, ranging from municipal public works departments to federal government agencies, as well as in the private sector, ranging from small businesses to Fortune 500 corporations.
Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific concepts to solve societal problems, and its history is inextricably related to breakthroughs in physics and mathematics throughout history. Because civil engineering is such a large field with so many sub-disciplines, its history is intertwined with knowledge of structures, materials science, geography, geology, soils, hydrology, environmental science, mechanics, project management, and other disciplines.