BSc Microbiology

BSc Microbiology

4 years

B.Sc Microbiology is a Four year Bachelor course of Tribhuvan University. Every year around 700 students get B.Sc degree majoring in microbiology from 25 colleges of TU of which 8 are constituents and rests are TU affiliated colleges.

Microbiology is the study of microbes (organisms too small to be seen by the naked eye) and the way they interact with humans, animals, plants and the environment. Microbiology is not a single subject, and it has applications in different fields. In general, microbiologists study microscopic organisms, which are organisms too small to see with the naked eye. There are many types of microscopic organisms so microbiologists tend to specialize in one certain field within microbiology creating many types of microbiologists. Microbiologists study these microorganisms learning about their ecology, their survival, how they affect us and how we can utilize them.

Some of the major areas under microbiology are,

Environmental Microbiology

Environmental microbiology, which studies the interactions of microbes with the environment and each other, has many important practical applications; for example, microbes are used to treat sewage and remediate hazardous waste. Environmental microbiologists might spend time outdoors conducting field studies, as well as in the lab performing controlled experiments.

Food, Agricultural or Industrial Microbiology

Microbiology careers in food production, agriculture and industry abound, as microscopic organisms play a major role in all three of these areas. For instance, microbiologists in the food industry might help a company with its efforts to prevent contamination by microorganisms.

Medical Microbiology, Virology or Immunology

Medical microbiologists find a place in the health care field in the areas of diagnostic, virology (the study of viruses) and immunology (the study of the mechanisms in the human body that prevent infection). They can work in laboratories conducting research in related disease areas.

Salient Features



The candidate must have completed 10+2 or equivalent examinations (with Biological Stream) with Minimum 'C' grade in all subjects to be eligible for admission in Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) in Microbiology program of Tribhuvan University. 

Job Prospects


The bachelor of Science in Microbiology (B.Sc Microbiology) is designed to provide graduates with core skill and knowledge require to Hospital Laboratories, Pharmaceutical manufactures, Food and Dairy Industries, Public Health Project, Health departments, Biotechnical industries, higher studies and research etc

Curricular Structure

B.Sc Microbiology is a four years undergraduate course as per Tribhuvan University. Students can choose the subject combination of their desire with Microbiology as their major subject. Currently, Students have the following options:

  • Microbiology + Botany + Chemistry
  • Microbiology +Chemistry + Zoology

B.Sc. First-Year General Microbiology (101)

Course Content

  • History and development of microbiology
  • Classification and nomenclature of microorganisms
  • Scope and applications of microbiology
  • Morphology of bacteria
  • growth and physiology of bacteria
  • Isolation, enumeration and culture of bacteria
  • Metabolism
  • Microbial Genetics
  • MIcroscopy and different techniques of handling of microorganisms
  • Techniques in control of microorganisms
  • Host-parasite interaction
  • Introduction to virology
  • Introduction to parasitology
  • Introduction to mycology

B.Sc. Second-year MIcrobiology-II (MB 201)

Course Contents

  • Living cell and understanding of its biochemical functions
  • Macromolecules and biomolecules of living cells
  • microbial metabolisms
  • Microbial genetics
  • Concept of biotechnology
  • Fermentation process
  • Agricultural microbial biotechnology
  • Biotechnology in dairy industry
  • Methods in genetic engineering
  • Enzyme Technology

B.Sc. Third Year MIcrobiology 

A) Molecular Cell Biology (MB 301)

Course Contents

  • An overview of cells
  • Cell structure and function
  • Nucleus
  • Membrane structure and transport
  • Structure and organisation of actin filaments
  • The microtubule cytoskeleton
  • Intracellular transport
  • Cell signalling
  • The cell cycle

B) Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Quality Management (MB 303) (Elective)

Course Contents

  • Introduction of pharmaceutical microbiology
  • Anti Microbialagents
  • Quality evaluation of pharmaceutical products
  • Microbial spoilage and preservative of pharmaceutical products
  • Quality assurance and quality management
  • Food safety and consumer protection

C) Bioinformatics (MB 304) (Elective)

Course Contents

  •  History, scope and importance of bioinformatics
  • Internet, World Wide Web and NCBI in  bioinformatics
  • Databases, tools and their uses
  • Sequence alignment
  • Predictive methods using DNA and protein sequences
  • Homology, Phylogeny, evolutionary trees and pharma informatics

B.Sc.  Four-year Microbiology

Environment and Public Health Microbiology (MB 401)

Course Contents

  • Soil and its constituents
  • Micro-organisms in soil and their roles
  • Microbial Ecology
  • Rhizospheric and phyllospheric microorganisms
  • Microbial interactions
  • Microbiology of extreme environments
  • Biogeochemical cycles and role of microorganisms
  • Microbial degradation
  • Bioremediation
  • Aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of organic compounds and application
  • Plant pathogens
  • Microorganisms in various foods
  • Factors affecting microbial growth in food
  • Techniques for determination of microorganisms in food
  • Food handling and spoilage
  • Food Preservations
  • Food quality evaluation
  • Role of Microorganisms in food poisoning

Agriculture and Food Microbiology Practical (Major) (402)

Course Contents

  • Microorganisms present in the soil
  • Buried slide technique for microbial flora of the soil
  • Azotobacter
  • Rhizobium
  • cellulase produced by organisms
  • Microorganisms from biofertilizers
  • Observation of various organisms present in the soil
  • Differentiation of various organisms from soil samples
  • Cyanobacteria
  • Phosphorus solubilisers
  • Count of micro-organisms in different foods
  • Dairy products: Milk, cheese and ice-cream
  • Tests for milk quality
  • Presence of MIcroorganisms in meat and meat products
  • Microorganisms present in fruits

Medical and Public Health Microbiology (Major) (403)

Course Contents

  • Health and  disease and epidemiological measurements
  • Methods of transmission of diseases
  • Management of diseases
  • Drinking water microbiology
  • Waste Management
  • Microbial air pollution
  • Historical background of medical microbiology
  • Normal flora of the human body
  • Immunity process
  • Safety measures in clinical labratory
  • Methods of specimen collection, transportation, processing and culture of clinical samples for detection of pathogens
  • Common pathogenic bacteria
  • Common pathogenic viruses
  • Medically important fungi
  • Common pathogenic parasites

Medical and Public Health Microbiology Practical (Major) (MB 404)

Course Contents

  • To perform a bacteriological examination of drinking water
  • To assess air pollution
  • To collect and transport various clinical specimens
  • To perform different staining techniques
  • To prepare different culture media and monitor their quality
  • To prepare Biochemical media and reagents for identification of bacteria
  • To differentiate different types of bacteria from biochemical tests
  • To perform an enzymatic test of the bacteria
  • To perform antibiotic susceptibility test of the bacterial isolates 
  • To demonstrate serological tests
  • To learn various sample collection techniques for the diagnosis of mycotic infections
  • To prepare fungal culture media
  • To detect the fungi by microscopic methods
  • To examine the samples for intestinal and tissue parasites

Methods in Microbiology (Applied Microbiology) (MB 405)

Course Contents

  • Safety measures in microbiology laboratory
  • Methods of specimen collection, transportation and processing of clinical samples for bacteria detection
  • Sample collection and laboratory diagnosis of mycotic infections
  • Method of collections of samples and processing for detection of parasites
  • Immunological and serological tests
  • Method of Collection of water samples and microbiological analysis
  • Field level tests for disease diagnosis
  • Molecular tests in microbiology laboratories
  • Microbiological quality tests of foods
  • Microbiology laboratory in agriculture

Bioinstrumentation (2076) New Course (MB 407) 

Course Content

  • Buffers
  • General principle and approaches of biochemical investigations 
  • Working principle, instrumentation and application of Phase contract, electron microscopy fluorescence microscopy
  • Working principle, instrumentation and applications of techniques
  • Working principle, instrumentation and uses of chromatographic techniques
  • Principle, instrumentation and applications of Lambert Beer's law, X-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy, spectrofluorimetry
  • Principle, instrumentation and application of molecular techniques

Revised Syllabus B.Sc First year and Second year-2073.pdf