M. Sc. Microbiology programme was started at Tribhuvan University in 1990 for the first time in Nepal at the Central Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur. The course structure of the programme was changed in 1999 and revised in 2008 and 2009. However, the course was based on the annual examination system. The course structure of the programme was changed into semester system in 2013.Therefore, this is a revised semester system credit based course curriculum to make it more competitive and research oriented as per international trend.
M.Sc Microbiology course is divided into four semesters within two academic years. The present curriculum is designed to upgrade M.Sc. microbiology degree of Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University to international level in accordance to current advances in microbiology. The new curriculum emphasizes on research based teaching learning practice.
The present curriculum aims to produce qualified microbiologists, molecular biologists, researchers and scientists as per national and international demand. The master's degree holders will be able to use skills of modern molecular biology techniques in basic science research or in applied research areas of microbiology. The graduates will be able to work as a qualified scientist for investigating the potential uses of microorganisms to produce antibiotics, antibodies, steroids, vaccines, hormones and other products of microbial origin. The master's degree holders will be able to work as a microbiologist and research scientist in the laboratories for monitoring, identifying and helping to control infectious diseases. They will also be able to work as qualified researchers and scientists in the institutions related to food production, crop protection and soil fertility.
Each year around 300 students are enrolled in MSc Microbiology program of Tribhuvan University which is the highest enrollment in biological sciences and also in top of all affiliations given to private colleges of Tribhuvan University, Institute of Science and Technology.
The general teaching methodology of the program includes interactive lectures, students’ presentations, case studies and projects.
Language of Instruction: English
Hours of Instruction:
Total Credits: 64 credits within four semesters.
1. Working days: 90 days in a semester
2. Class hours:
- Theory: One credit is equivalent to 15 teaching hours in a semester. One theory paper of 1 credit will have 1 hour of lecture per week.
- Practical: One credit is equal to 60 practical hours in a semester. One practical paper of 1.5 or 1 credit will have 4 hours of practical per week.
Student should be regular in their classes. Students failing to maintain 80% presence are not allowed to appear in the semester-end examinations and regarded as “not qualified”. However, in case of serious illness the students with 70% attendance will be given chance to appear in the semester-end exam. In this case students have to submit an authorized medical certificate.
Normal and Maximum Duration of Study
The normal duration and the maximum duration for the completion of the requirements for the program is as follows:
- Normal duration 24 months (4 academic semesters)
- Maximum duration 60 months (10 academic semesters)
Students failing to complete the requirements in 60 months have to re-enroll.
Students must pass the internal assessment in order to appear for the final examination. There will be two internal assessments which will count as 40% internal evaluation. The pass marks for theory is 50% and practical subjects are 50%. Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University will conduct semester examination. The final semester examination of 1 credit theory subject will have 1 hour of duration (3C ≈ 3 hrs) and internal assessment will have one hour of duration for all subjects.
Total marks obtained in internal and semester-end exams shall be graded on absolute bases. The performance of a student shall be made on four point scale ranging from 0 to 4 grades. A student must secure a minimum Grade Point Average (GPA) of 2.7 or Grade B minus (B-) in each course.
The candidates with Bachelor’s Degree in Microbiology from Tribhuvan University or equivalent degree recognized by Tribhuvan University can apply for admission. Each applicant should appear and pass entrance examination conducted by the Central Department of Microbiology. The enrollment is based on merit marks secured by the student in entrance (80%) and B Sc Microbiology (20%).. The candidates failed to get minimum qualifying marks/pass marks is denied admission.
- Students must attend and pass the entrance examination.
- Pass mark for the entrance examination is 35%.
- Students will be enrolled on the basis of merit. Merit list is published on the basis of both marks obtained in Bachelor level and entrance examination.
Merit list: = 20% (marks obtained in B.Sc) + 80 % (marks secured in entrance examination)
In Central department and constituent campuses of Tribhuvan University; out of total available seats 80% seats will be filled from free competition and 20% from reserved (inclusive) category.
Students who want to compete from proportional representation category must fulfilled following criteria.
- Passed SLC from community schools
- Students who are permanent resident of backward region must have passed SLC from the same region
- Students must have passed Bachelor level from constitutent campus of Tribhuvan University or Community campuses.
If any seats remain vacant in the inclusive/reserved category; remaining seats will be fulfilled from the merit list of free competition.
The master's degree holders will be eligible to be the lecturers of microbiology programme offered by Institute of Science and Technology and other institutions of Tribhuvan University or other universities for teaching, mentoring and supervising bachelors and masters' level microbiology students.
Careers in Microbiology
So you have a microbiology degree and you want a job? Many job seekers with microbiology degrees know only of a few types of careers such as industry and academia. However, the employment sphere for microbiologists is much larger and ever expanding. In recent years there has been an explosion in the types of job opportunities that are available to those with microbiology training since microbes and their actions pervade all aspects of our increasingly complex society.
Like medicine, microbiology isn’t a single subject, but rather an umbrella, which offers a range of specializations. Microbiology has spawned a plethora of jobs in wide spectrum of industries from pharma to cosmetics.
Microbiologists have a very important role to play in the scheme of things in the future, with research being the main field of expertise. Applying the research findings can greatly improve the quality of our lives. In this way microbiology makes an important contribution to biotechnology, an area of science that applies industrial techniques to biological processes.
The range of job opportunities for microbiologists is as varied as the organisms they examine under their microscopes. Some of the career opportunities are as follows:
Microbiology is a core basic science in medical schools that usually maintains departments in this discipline. Microbiology is also a key discipline of biological studies in undergraduate colleges. There are numerous types of positions available for individuals with microbiology training in academic institutions that include research and teaching.
- Medical, Dental, and Veterinary Schools
- College and University
Teachers are responsible for working up a curriculum, developing tests, overseeing lab work and working with graduate students.
Laboratory technician is the person behind the scores of tests and experiments performed within the laboratory. These people assist scientists engage in research, development, analysis, or scientific investigations, by carrying out a variety of technical and experimental tasks using established or prescribed procedures and techniques.
Research Assistant (in Genetics, and Biochemistry)
Research Assistant provides the necessary support to researchers. They provide technical assistance, as assigned, in the collection, processing, and coordination of data, samples, and/or specimens for a specified research study or group of studies. They work within established research protocol and under specific instructions as to method, process, and technique to perform or assist with routine tests, experiments, and/or procedures relevant to the field of study.
A researcher is a driving force behind any kind of major innovations in microbiological field, not only does he throw up new facts but also delves deep into the past to decipher a pattern. They make authoritative decisions and recommendations that have a major impact on extensive scientific research activities. They exercise a high degree of creativity, foresight, and mature judgment in planning, organising, and guiding extensive scientific research programs and activities of outstanding novelty and/or importance.
Microbiologists are involved in a plethora of activities, namely:
- Research into the structure, function, ecology, biotechnology and genetics of micro-organisms.
- Research into the structure and functioning of human, animal and plant tissues and cells.
- Studies into the identification, effects and control of human, plant and animal pathogens and toxins.
- Clinical or laboratory studies to test, evaluate and screen drugs and pharmaceuticals.
- Molecular or biochemical studies and experiments into genetic expression, gene manipulation and recombinant DNA technology.
The entire course of M.Sc Microbiology is divided into four semesters within two academic years.
The first semester course covers the disciplines of General/Advances in Microbiology, Immunology, Microbial Genetics, Microbial Biochemistry and Biotechnology and practical on these courses.
The second semester offers track selection among four different disciplines of microbiology for specialization. The four disciplines from second semester include Medical Microbiology, Public Health Microbiology, Food and Industrial Microbiology and Agriculture Microbiology with their practical courses.
In the second semester, students are required to choose one of the four different disciplines offered and continue with it through the third and fourth semesters. Students are not allowed to change the discipline once they have chosen it. The selection of discipline of microbiology may depend upon the facilities available at the department. To gain exposure, students are encouraged to go for excursion after the second semester.
The fourth semester is completely research oriented that includes internship based on selected track and dissertation.