The tables below contain the actual Unicode characters.
Mathematical Operators and Symbols
Characters in Unicode | Description | Hex Code |
± | Plus or Minus | 00B1 |
√ | Square Root | 221A |
∝ | Proportional to | 221D |
≅ | Approximately equal to | 2245 |
≠ | Not equal to | 2260 |
≤ | Less than or equal to | 2264 |
≥ | Greater than or equal to | 2265 |
∞ | Infinity | 221E |
∫ | Integral | 222B |
∂ | Partial Differential | 2202 |
° | Degree | 00B0 |
∠ | Angle (Acute Angle) | 2220 |
∟ | Right Angle | 221F |
∑ | Sigma | 2211 |
θ | Theta [Greek] | 03B8 |
Fractions
Characters in Unicode | Description | Hex Code |
⅟ | Fraction with 1 numerator | 215F |
½ | Half | 00BD |
⅓ | One-third | 2153 |
¼ | One-fourth (Quarter) | 00BC |
⅔ | Two-third | 2154 |
¾ | Three-fourth | 00BE |
Physics and Engineering
Characters in Unicode | Description | Hex Code |
Ω | Ohm/Omega | 03A9 |
ω | Omega [Greek] | 03C9 |
ψ | Psi [Greek] | 03C8 |
λ | Lambda [Greek] | 03BB |
µ | Mu [Greek] | 03BC |
ρ | Rho | 03C1 |
α | Alpha [Greek] | 03B1 |
σ | Lowercase Sigma [Greek] | 03C3 |
η | Eta [Greek] | 03B7 |
Σ | Sigma (Uppercase) | 03A3 |
θ | Theta (Lowercase) | 03B8 |
Superscripts (Exponent/Power)
Characters in Unicode | Description | Hex Code |
⁰ | Superscript Zero (to the power 0) | 2070 |
¹ | Superscript One | 00B9 |
² | Superscript Two | 00B2 |
³ | Superscript Three | 00B3 |
⁴ | Superscript Four | 2074 |
⁵ | Superscript Five | 2075 |
⁶ | Superscript Six | 2076 |
⁷ | Superscript Seven | 2077 |
⁸ | Superscript Eight | 2078 |
⁹ | Superscript Nine | 2079 |
½ | Superscript Half | 00BD |
⁻ | Superscript Minus | 207B |
⁺ | Superscript Plus | 207A |
Subscripts
Characters in Unicode | Description | Hex Code |
₀ | Subscript Zero | 2080 |
₁ | Subscript One | 2081 |
₂ | Subscript Two | 2082 |
₃ | Subscript Three | 2083 |
₄ | Subscript Four | 2084 |
₅ | Subscript Five | 2085 |
₆ | Subscript Six | 2086 |
₇ | Subscript Seven | 2087 |
₈ | Subscript Eight | 2088 |
₉ | Subscript Nine | 2089 |
₋ | Subscript Minus | 208B |
₊ | Subscript Plus | 208A |
What is Unicode?
Computers deal with numbers. The storage of each letter and character is done by assigning a number. Different systems used for assigning those numbers a are called character encoding. Even though there were hundreds of character encoding, these were not enough to cover all the languages and symbols.
To solve this problem, Unicode Inc. came up with an idea to replacing existing different character encoding schemes with a universal text-encoding standard that provides a unique number for every character, irrelevance to the platform, device, application or language. The most recent version, Unicode 13.0 consists of 143,696 graphic characters, 163 format characters, and 65 control characters) covering 154 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets and emoji.
APPLICATIONS OF UNICODE:
Unicode was highly successful in unifying the character sets and is now adopted by all modern software, operating systems, search engines, applications, and the World Wide Web.
Some of the applications of Unicode are:
1. Writing superscripts and subscripts in Web:
The subscript or superscript is a character (the character might be a number or a letter) that is set slightly below or above the normal line respectively. Superscripts and subscripts are mostly used in formulas (Chemical and Mathematical), mathematical expressions and specifications of chemical compounds and isotopes.
eg, x₀, x⁰, etc.
Each superscript or subscript character is preceded by a normal x.
2. Writing Equations in Web:
Unicode characters help us to write various equations (like polynomial, chemical, trigonometric, cartesian, differential and so on. ) in the plain-text form on the web.
eg. The second equations of motion is:
- s = ut + ½ at²
3. Writing Chemical and Algebraic Formulas in Web
Unicode characters help us to write many chemical and algebraic formulas and equations in proper form without markup with proper superscripts and superscripts.
eg. The molecular formula of water is H₂0.