Every year the Nobel Prizes are presented by Scandinavian committees to persons who have contributed substantially with their work in science and culture for the benefit of humanity.
In accordance to the will of affluent Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel (1833–1896), the inventor of dynamite, Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Peace that were first awarded in 1901 were established in 1895. The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was instituted by Sveriges Riksbank in 1968. It was first bestowed in 1969.
Except for Peace Prize, which is given out in Oslo, Norway, Nobel Prizes are conferred amidst a colourful ceremony in Stockholm annually on 10 December that marks Alfred Nobel’s death anniversary. Each Nobel Prize (that could be shared up to among three persons) comprises of a gold medal, diploma and a purse of ten million Swedish Kroner (SEK), which equivalents to circa US Dollars1.4 million.
Known as the father of test tube baby, British Professor Robert G. Edwards (85) has been awarded the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine by the Nobel Assembly (consisting of fifty professors) at Karolinska Institutet for his effort in the development of in vitro fertilization (IVF).
World’s first test tube baby, Louise Brown was born safely in 1978 to her parents Lesley and John Brown (who underwent nine painful years of failed attempts to have a child) through Caesarian section after a full-term pregnancy. Prof Edward’s envisioned IVF had been transformed into reality that ushered a new era for the benefit of mankind in medicine.
The Nobel Prize in Physics has been shared jointly by Professors Andre Geim (52) and Konstantin Novoselov (36) both from University of Manchester for their groundbreaking experiments regarding two-dimensional material, grapheme, which is an extremely slim sheet sparsely one atom thick.
Geim and Novoselov extracted graphene from a piece of graphite commonly found in pencils and cleverly converted it into stable crystalline foil deploying regular adhesive tape.
American Professor Richard F. Heck (79), University of Delaware and Japanese Professors Ei-ichi Negishi (75), Purdue University, Indiana, USA and Akira Suzuki (80), Hokkaido University have been honoured with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their brilliant undertaking on palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis.
They developed more efficient ways of linking carbon atoms together to build the complex molecules that are improving our everyday lives
Demonstrating that Nobel Peace Prize can not only be won by the powerful but also by the powerless, the Norwegian Nobel Committee has granted the coveted Nobel Peace Prize to Chinese Liu Xiaobo (55) for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China.
Demonstrating that Nobel Peace Prize can not only be won by the powerful but also by the powerless, the Norwegian Nobel Committee has granted the coveted Nobel Peace Prize to Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo (55) for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China. He is perhaps the best known ardent campaigner in China
.. The remaining two Nobel Peace Prize Laureates are Aung San Suu Kyi, the Burmese opposition leader, Carl von Ossietzky, the German pacifist, who had won the Nobel Prizes in 1991 and in 1935 respectively.
Mario Vargas Llosa, Peruvian author of fascinating novels as The Feast of the Goat and The War of the End of the World and of many outstanding works of non-fiction and plays, received this year’s Nobel Prize in Literature "for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual’s resistance, revolt and defeat".
The bestowal of this distinction encouraged Latino Americans to celebrate and rejuvenate. His writing is primarily aimed at challenging the society’s shortcomings, depicting the oppression of the powerful on those who defy it. An individual’s quest for freedom in an oppressive environment has become a major theme in his writings.
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences declared The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences (eponymously referred to as Nobel Prize in Economics) to American economists Peter Diamond (70) and Dale Mortensen (43) along with British (born in Cyprus) Christopher Pissarides (37) for their joint analysis of markets with search friction. They contributed a theoretical model for tackling problems related to search markets.
Professor Peter Diamond had examined in details the influential foundations of search markets while the remaining duo Dale Mortensen and Christopher Pissarides have augmented the postulations and have applied it to the labor market.